My Eyes Glaze Over. This used to be the trademark teenage response to all things dull and boring. Such as math, french literature, and especially money issues. Today’s approximation for MEGO would be “meh”.
So as I thought about making a video to explain the difference between Federal Direct subsidized and unsubsidized student loans….guess what happened…yep MEGO!
BUT WAIT! If you, dear reader, are in the hunt for more college money, you must understand student loans. Why? Because when college bills are looming, it may be that there is no choice but to take out some student loans.
If you were offered subsidized loans and unsubsidized student loans in your college’s financial aid award letter, then it’s time to know the difference between these loans. You’ll need to know how to use their attributes strategically.
Most importantly use these Federal Direct subsidized and unsubsidized student loans FIRST (they have certain dollar amount limits) before considering any private student loans.
These are the best student loans you can get. Here’s why:
Federal Direct student loans offer the best repayment programs. Watch some of my other videos on this subject for more info.
Here is an example:
Really, after all this, you could not be blamed for drifting into MEGO and thinking about cute puppy videos.
February 2016 – I challenged myself to do a video explaining Parent Plus Loans in under 3 minutes. Here it is:
In the process I learned something about this loan that makes it remarkable. There are features affecting Parent Plus Loans in the current structure of the Education Department’s loan repayment plans that could allow almost all low income families to send their children to college free or nearly free…no matter how high the cost of attendance. In fact, the higher the cost of attendance, the more families further up the income scale can participate!
Yup! Parents can legally borrow money to pay for their child’s college education UP TO the “Cost of Attendance” minus any scholarship or grant money their child receives for each year of undergraduate study.
Colleges: Let’s Just Make-up a Cost-Of-Attendance!
The cost of attendance is whatever the college says it is (!), and includes tuition and fees, room and board, books, personal supplies and travel. Students, on their own, can borrow subsidized and unsubsidized federal student loans up to certain limits each year of undergraduate study. The total amount is capped at $31,000. That’s not nearly enough for four years at most private non-profit institutions or larger state universities. It’s barely enough for smaller public colleges either, even if the student lives at home. Most students can borrow additional funds from private lenders, but the repayment terms are not nearly as good as Federal student loans.
“Adverse Credit” Is What We Say It Is!
Most parents are eligible to take out Parent Plus Loans to help their students. The only thing standing in the way of getting these loans is if the parent-applicant has “adverse credit” as revealed through a credit report.
After much negotiation, rule-makers recently came up with new definitions of “adverse credit” regarding Parent Plus Loans. Applicants will be considered to have an adverse credit history if he or she has debts greater than $2085 that are 90 or more days delinquent as of the date of the credit report, or any debts that have been placed in collection or charged off in the previous two years.
Some provisions for extenuating circumstances, like having large medical bills, are available. And, having a co-signer who is not the student and who does not have adverse credit, can overcome most obstacles to obtaining a Parent Plus loan.
Demand for Parent Plus loans has been rising steadily, barely dented by the new adverse credit rules. The harm caused to low and moderate income families by this loan has been rising as well. The trouble is that there are no limits in place regarding a parent’s ability to repay their Parent Plus loans. Credit counseling, which would help parents understand this loan, is either ineffective or unavailable. Or both.
Parents with very low incomes can and do borrow enormous amounts to pay for their child’s education. Interest rates for Parent Plus loans are currently at 6.84% for the 2015-16 school year. There is an origination fee of about 4% for each Parent Plus loan. Interest rates change for new loans every year according to a formula based on the 10-year Treasury yield. The Department of Education is the lender, and has an ever- increasing number of parent-borrowers in some stage of financial distress due to these loans.
Finally, The Secret Sauce… But, You Have To Dig For It!
Back in 2005, in an effort to unify the terms of income dependent repayment plans, the Department of Education made the Parent Plus loan eligible for one of the more borrower-friendly repayment plans through the transformative power of loan consolidation. But few parents know about this path to making their child’s college dreams come true (without wrecking the family’s finances). Here’s the scoop and it’s available for viewing on the Department of Education’s student loan website. https://studentaid.ed.gov/sa/repay-loans/understand/plans
Here’s a screen shot of the important part (lower right corner):
Borrowers of one or more Parent Plus loans can consolidate their loans into a Federal Direct Consolidation Loan in order to be eligible for the Income Contingent Repayment plan. This strategy applies only to those borrowers who started repayment in 2006 or later. It’s important to note that Parent Plus loans should not be consolidated with any other types of Federal loans. Doing so causes non-Parent Plus loans to lose their eligibility for more favorable repayment plans like IBR, PAYE and REPAYE. Federal Direct Consolidation is a free service offered by the Department of Education.
Under the Income Contingent Repayment plan, most borrowers get lower monthly payments (as compared to regular Parent Plus payments). These payments are determined by a formula which includes a percentage of the borrower’s adjusted gross income, the borrower’s family size, and the amount of the loan left to pay. Some very low-income borrowers could even end up with zero dollar monthly payments for the entire length of the loan!
The repayment period for ICR is 25 years. At that time any remaining principal and interest balance would be forgiven. However, today’s rules would tax the forgiven amount at the borrowers future tax rate.
Bonus! – Meaningful Use Of Public Service Loan Forgiveness
Also, under the Income Contingent Repayment plan, former Parent Plus borrowers with new Federal Direct Consolidation loans can take full advantage of the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program. Parent-borrowers working in public service jobs may be able to get a substantial portion of their loans forgiven in as little as 10 years with no tax consequences.
Oh, And Let’s Throw In “Married-Filing-Separately”!
In 2012, President Obama mandated that the ICR plan would no longer require married borrowers to declare the income of both spouses, as long as the parent-borrower files taxes separately. That move by the President made the Parent Plus loan even more flexible when consolidated into the ICR plan.
The Hazard Of Omission
Some education writers and experts may opine that the Parent Plus loan is a hazard for borrowers. Well yes, it will continue to be a hazard if the Education Department doesn’t tell everyone about the repayment plan that can potentially help so many borrowers.
Why not advertise the heck out of it? The Parent Plus consolidation-to-ICR feature is not a mistake. It was put there to help parent-borrowers, wasn’t it? Surely those who negotiated this feature knew they had designed a way for low-income families to send their children to the same colleges as wealthier families. Right?
But, even if these parent-borrowers do get a taxpayer-funded deal for their children, they are not going to have an easy journey. For 25 years they will have to make on-time payments, follow the rules carefully, keep every scrap of paperwork, and stay on top of any changes. What’s more, they will have to be their own experts and advocates in the face of recalcitrant loan servicers.
Not many people have this level of discipline. I know I would slip up who-knows-how many-times during a quarter century of payments. And it’s well known that loan servicers can trip borrowers up at any moment for no good reason.
So, here is a list of several things that could happen if word gets out about the Parent Plus loan being almost a free ticket to college for low income students. For this list I am putting my mind on the “free-range” setting, which is good for a laugh or two. Mull these over:
1. The private loan industry would be crushed. Sorry about that! (Not!)
2. Private non-profit colleges would be less (or not at all) motivated to use their endowments to help low-income students. No more grants and scholarships, just go get a Parent Plus loan!
3. More low-income students would feel empowered to apply to top colleges. Colleges would find it easy to admit well-qualified students from across the socio-economic spectrum (no strain on the endowment funds!).What a concept!
4. Colleges of all types would accelerate increases in their stated costs of attendance, but wealthier families would force a reversal of this trend. At least for top-ranked schools.
5. The Department of Education would become permanently linked with the IRS. For a preview of this, see the President’s new College Scorecard. Eventually, all Parent Plus borrowers would have their loan payments automatically deducted from their paychecks or tax refunds thus reducing mistakes and the need for interaction with loan servicers.
Sound far fetched? Maybe.
But seriously, could the Parent Plus Loan be the pathway to universal low-cost college in America? And is that even a good thing?
Let me know what you think by commenting below this post. Or, contact me at TheCollegeMoneyMom@gmail.com
This change in the FAFSA start-date starting on October 1st 2016, along with the recently announced College Scorecard system, are game changing aids for families with college-bound children.
All at once, families will have the information they need to make college lists that are actually affordable for their financial circumstances. The College Scorecard is a complementary tool that will allow a family to use their actual federal financial aid eligibility to compare school costs before their student applies.
Never before has this been possible, and it makes me wonder why the college financial aid system ever got to the point where students were applying blindly to schools they could not afford if they were accepted. When you think about it, that’s pretty much the definition of a disfunctional system. Hate to put it so bluntly, but there you have it.
There has been a lot of fear on the part of institutions of higher education everywhere. Changing the FAFSA start-date encountered a lot of political push-back. It took a lame-duck president, looking for legacy, to pull the plug on this systemic bottleneck.
This change will cause a rapid re-examination of business plans in colleges across the country. Recruitment, budget cycles, processing aid applications and issuing awards all must happen a lot earlier.
At this time we are in the one year countdown. Next year on October 1, 2016, if all goes well, the very first “early” FAFSA applications will be filed.
Will the FAFSA-only colleges be ready? There could be a tsunami of applicants, many of whom had never considered filling out the FAFSA because of it’s complexity. There might be a lot more Pell Grant recipients, who knows? The whole FAFSA system may slow down or even malfunction (like you know what!) under the weight of applications. But, in the long run processes will smooth themselves out. Meanwhile college students will be making “aid aware” college choices that might keep the Student Loan Monster at bay!
But still, the question remains: why did we, the parents, allow such a crazy system to persist for so long? Hmmmm….
The new College Scorecard website was built on a data dump the size of Mt. Denali…in fact, it’s like data heaven for college data geeks!
HA! Try to put THIS genie back in the bottle.
Watch my video for a demonstration of College Scorecard’s main features.
Well, if this isn’t some fine payback by the Obama administration for all those who scuttled the President’s new college rating plan. And it’s so sincere and sounds so well-meaning that even the opposition is mumbling grudging kudos. But the word is out on colleges that don’t live up to their promises.
So much data, in such an easy-to-use format, built for mobile devices, rolled out just in time for students and their families to make critical decisions about colleges. Whatever the quality of the data, there will be some significant changes in the world of higher education. Tah dah!
Just in my ramblings around this new College Scorecard website at collegescorecard.ed.gov, I could not resist making a search for all medium and large “for-profit” schools. I kind of knew what the results would be, but it was worse than I thought. Apparently, nobody bothered to tell the University of Phoenix that their search results would show that EVERYONE who had attended their schools on all their campuses made salaries of $53,400 dollars after 10 years. Yep, everyone. Clerical error? Or, maybe Phoenix wants it that way.
And then I was wondering about where that data on the salaries of former students came from. And how about the data showing how former students were progressing with their loan repayments?
Well, turns out this info is new, never before seen in public. The federal government, apparently working for the common good, decided to combine the data from federal student loan borrowers with data from their tax records. This data produced lots of useful information. Some of it makes certain schools look good and some of it is very damaging for others. The data is out there for all to see and use.
I didn’t get to vote on the idea to combine this information, nor on the distribution of it. Did you?
Supposedly the personal identifiers have been removed from the data. Hope so.
Here are the assurances of privacy put forth in the data documentation for College Scorecard:
“All National Student Loan Data System (NSLDS) and Treasury elements are protected for privacy purposes; any data not reported in order to protect an individual’s privacy are shown as PrivacySuppressed.”
Is “Privacy Suppressed” what they really meant to say?
I don’t know about you, but I felt like my privacy was suppressed when my data was compromised at Target and at Home Depot!
A young friend of mine just graduated from college and, even has a brand new well-paying job! And that’s not all, he’s newly married! What a lucky guy!
What’s not lucky is that he has student loans. In just 6 months he’ll be out of his grace period and will have to start paying those loans back.
What are his options?
The first thing he might want to consider is consolidating his loans.
Let’s say his loans are all federal direct loans and that some are subsidized and some aren’t. These loans were made in different school years for different amounts and at different interest rates.
So, even though he’ll probably have his loans grouped with one servicer by his lender (the U.S. Education Department), keeping up with all those different loans requires a lot of attentiveness. Mistakes can easily be made by the borrower. Or even by the servicer…shocking, right?
Consolidate Student Loans and Stay Organized
Consolidating his loans would give my young friend a far simpler repayment picture. His interest rates would be averaged and weighted into a rate nearly the same as if he had kept them all separate. Not only that, but he would gain access to at least one of the new affordable repayment plans.
Consolidate Student Loans and Get Affordable Payments
So far, the very newest repayment plan is not quite finalized, but is nearly certain to be available in December of 2015. It’s called the Revised Pay As You Earn plan, or REPAYE for short. My friend would be eligible for REPAYE and it might keep his payments down enough for he and his wife to save for their first house, and to start a family.
He would have been eligible for REPAYE’s more borrower-friendly older cousin, the PAYE plan, IF he had not gotten that well-paying job right out of college. Thanks to his new paycheck, he will not be poor enough in comparison to his student debt to get on the PAYE plan. Moreover, the ratio of wealth to debt for my friend gets even worse under REPAYE because the fed’s calculation of HIS income will include his wife’s income as well. Who knew he should have borrowed more? Just kidding!
But, no matter! Getting your student loan payment down to 10% of your JOINT discretionary income is still a wonderful thing! And, since my friend only has undergraduate loans, any remaining balance will be forgiven after 20 years. The forgiven amount could be taxable that year as income, but it’s likely this tax threat could be gone in the future, thanks to congressional efforts.
If my friend decides to consolidate all his student loans into a single Federal Direct Student Loan for simplicity’s sake and then decides to enter the REPAYE plan, he will have to understand one important fact. As a participant in the plan, he is obligated to send in a form which verifies his family’s joint income EVERY SINGLE YEAR. If he forgets the verification form, he will be placed in an alternate version of the REPAYE plan until he is jolted awake by the higher payments!
The new REPAYE plan will allow many more borrowers to get affordable payments as well, no matter when they got their loans and no matter how much money they earn. The older borrowers will need to get some of their “non-direct” federal loans, such as FFEL, consolidated into Federal Direct Consolidation loans. The biggest thing for older borrowers to remember is that Parent Plus loans cannot be included in these new Federal Direct Consolidation loans. And, even if an earlier consolidation loan paid off a Parent Plus loan, then that consolidation loan is considered “tainted”. It cannot be included in the borrower’s new Federal Direct Consolidation loan, whose purpose it is to access the REPAYE plan.
So you might be wondering why this latest round of cleverly acronym’d student loan repayment plans has come to be a dinner party topic. Here it is: REPAYE clamps down on the excesses of PAYE. Simple as that.
People had begun to game the system. Doctors, lawyers and other high student loan borrowers figured out that they could combine the generous features of PAYE with the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program (PSLF). In 2017, the first of many lucky borrowers will have hundreds of thousands of student loan debt forgiven. The forgiven amounts will not be taxed.
All this system-gaming has given colleges the idea that they can raise their tuitions to match the benefits of the PAYE plan and PSLF program. Taxpayers will be on the hook for the ever-spiraling debt and tuition crisis at private non-profit colleges AND to some degree at public universities.
The cry has gone up to politicians and higher education policy-makers: Put the brakes on PAYE! So REPAYE was invented, and here we are on the brink of it’s implementation.
We can only hope that this time they got it right. I’m taking bets starting now! Who’s in?
Now that the President has decreed a new “Student Aid Bill of Rights”, the ship of state will turn slowly toward a better way for student borrowers to manage all their loans through one portal. A new centralized complaint system will give more borrowers the ability to resolve disputes with loan servicers and debt collection agencies.
Thanks to the National Consumer Law Center and it’s Student Loan Borrower Assistance project, a prototype of this new system exists now. Watch this video to get a guided tour of how the Student Loan Borrower Assistance (.org) website links the pieces of the new system together.
If I was asked to magically build a new system to get student loan help, I would create the new loan management portal using the building blocks provided by the the National Student Loan Data System. Currently, this system provides credentialed visitors with access to all their Federal student loan information. However, the visitor cannot find information about his/her private student loans. This is the next important task. But it’s just too hard to think about compiling private student loan information, so my magic wand would just “Make It So”!
As for the centralized complaint reporting piece of the new “Student Aid Bill of Rights”, I would just (poof!) combine the best parts of the two existing Student Loan Ombudsman offices. The Department of Education now handles complaint arbitration for Federal student loan disputes. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s Student Loan Ombudsman office makes a specialty of resolving private student loan disputes. Cue the magic MixMaster!
And finally, just like the Student Loan Borrower Assistance website, I would have a whole list of free legal help right there on the new centralized complaint system website. Hey, not every student loan complaint can be resolved in a tidy fashion. What’s more, the rule against discharging student loan debt through bankruptcy looks like it’s on the table for revision. New bankruptcy rules will produce a tsunami of borrowers who will need legal guidance. Or a fairy godmother!
So the President is expanding and changing his favorite student loan repayment plan…Pay As You Earn…again!
PAYE, is an apt acronym for the Pay As You Earn plan. If you borrowed money from the government to attend college, you are going to PAYE, but maybe not as much as you expected.
If you are a taxpayer, you are going to PAYE for a portion of someone’s education, and maybe more than you expected.
And then there are the colleges and universities who will, as usual, plan their yearly tuition increases around the latest proposals to increase the availability of ever more liberal student loan repayment schemes. Maybe it IS time for a change.
Take a look at my video, in which I try to make PAYE more understandable!
As much as I’d like to see the PAYE plan help student borrowers, and it will, I’d also like to see if any of the proposed PAYE plan limitations will help to put the brakes on the insidious cycle of tuition creep.
For your enjoyment, I copied this right out of the Department of Education’s 2015 Proposed Budget:
The 2015 Budget proposes to extend Pay As You Earn (PAYE) to all student borrowers and reform the PAYE terms to ensure that program benefits are targeted to the neediest borrowers. The reforms also aim to safeguard the program for the future, including by protecting against institutional practices that may further increase student indebtedness. In addition, to simplify borrowers’ experience while reducing program complexity, PAYE would become the only income-driven repayment plan for borrowers who originate their first loan on or after July 1, 2015, which would allow for easier selection of a repayment plan. Students who borrowed their first loans prior to July 1, 2015, would continue to be able to select among the existing repayment plans (for plans for which they now qualify and for loans originated through their current course of study), in addition to the modified PAYE.
The Budget proposes additional changes to PAYE that include:
Eliminating the standard payment cap under PAYE so that high-income, high-balance borrowers pay an equitable share of their earnings as their income rises; (Listen up doctors, lawyers and dentists!)
Calculating payments for married borrowers filing separately on the combined household Adjusted Gross Income; (so the message is, don’t get married?)
Capping Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) at the aggregate loan limit for independent undergraduate students to protect against institutional practices that may further increase student indebtedness, while ensuring the program provides sufficient relief for students committed to public service; (the cap would be $57,500)
Establishing a 25-year forgiveness period for borrowers with balances above the aggregate loan limit for independent undergraduate students; (this is aimed at lower income borrowers who used the higher threshold PLUS loans).
Preventing payments made under non-income driven repayment plans from being applied toward PSLF to ensure that loan forgiveness is targeted to students with the greatest need; and
Capping the amount of interest that can accrue when a borrower’s monthly payment is insufficient to cover interest costs, to avoid ballooning loan balances. (Currently 10%)
If your eyes have not glazed over by all this budget stuff that really won’t take effect until early 2016, here are the contents of the “special sauce” that I mentioned in the video. The two big deals about the PAYE plan are that your monthly payments are kept low by a calculation of what 10% of your discretionary income would be according to your salary. This calculation of your payment can never be greater than what you would have paid if you had been using the Standard Repayment Plan. If the calculation shows that, in any year, your payment IS greater than the Standard plan, a loud buzzer goes off and you are OUT…yes, you are sent back to the hell of HUGE monthly payments! The message is: have a good accountant who will warn you and make sure you send in proof of your eligibility and family size each and every year. Because they will throw you out for forgetting that too!
Here’s the other big deal part of the special sauce: a 10% limit on capitalization for unpaid accrued interest! For those moderate non-doctor borrowers (60K to about 150K) that means that they will never find their loan amount ever gets bigger than 10% more than the amount they originally borrowed. There you have it. Special Sauce!
And now, having read the proposed new PAYE rules, you know why the doctors, lawyers, and dentists are going to be spitting fire at the Administration. You would too if you’d had to borrow $400,000 or more just to get through school, and then had to face a 6K a month payment for the next ten Standard Plan years
Watch my video to refresh your knowledge of for-profit college companies! Then get a load of their newest business venture: charter schools!
A “little trouble” with the feds can’t stop for-profit college companies from continuing to feed at the public trough! Some of the biggest for-profit college chains have come under federal scrutiny recently. They did not fare well. Several have been told to cease operations for defrauding students. Others have been told to adhere to tougher student achievement standards in order to stay open. And still more are being monitored for their higher-than-usual student loan default rates.
So what would you expect of these huge companies whose business model is to enroll low income students in their colleges, just to gain access to federal education funding, like Pell grants and Student Loans? Would you expect them to just pack up their bags and leave quietly? Well…no.
Sure enough, just like Whack-a-Mole, they’re back with a business model that is not brand-new, but is just now ripe for the picking. How about charter schools? Yes, for-profit education companies have crept their way into the public school systems of many states. Their new name is Education Management Organization or EMO.
Sure, I know, we all think of charter schools as being run by well-meaning non-profit 501(c)(3) corporations. Charter schools are supposed to provide alternatives for students in poorly performing schools, courtesy the state and federal taxpayers.
The only trouble is that many of the non-profit corporations that were originally formed to run these charter schools started needing help with the day-to-day operations of the schools. The non-profits started hiring the EMO’s to run the schools. And while the duties started small at first, the EMO’s were later asked to take over just about everything, student education included!
Oh, and guess what? The for-profit EMO’s wanted to MAKE A PROFIT! Can you believe it? Just one little problem: taxpayers who thought they were providing additional school choice for students in failing schools, now find themselves supporting the bottom line of for-profit companies.
Looks like we’ll be needing some stronger oversight regulations pretty soon. What do you think?
Kids binging on filling out college applications is not a pretty sight. Five new completely different essays each night after school, and when that gets old, then out comes the old “cut and paste” routine. Pretty soon a high school senior starts to think his own personal story is a work of fiction.
Exactly why this is happening has an easy answer…because they can!…thanks to the Common Application which is making it possible to crank out college applications in unprecedented numbers.
Now the hard-to-swallow answer: Nobody is helping these high school seniors, as bright as they may be, to sort through their college application lists. So with no help, seniors are not taking any chances of getting shut out of college.
As long as Mom and Dad will allow their credit cards to get filled up with application charges (at $40-90 a pop!), then students will keep applying. With no counselor to help kids understand which schools they are most likely to be accepted by, and most importantly, to help families understand which schools they might be able to afford, the binge fest will continue.
In this video, I use about one minute more than my normal three, to go down those two critical roads: acceptance probability and family affordability. Please watch to see if I nail it. Please give me comments here or email me at TheCollegeMoneyMom@gmail.com.
Seems like the payments on your college loans will never end, right? Well they will someday, due in no small part to your diligent efforts to stay in touch with your federal student loan servicer. At least that’s what I hope you do, or what I hope you would tell your college-bound child to do! Check out my latest rant (I mean video) on this issue !